Nanotechnology: Part — I

Nanotechnology: Task - I

You will watch six short video films about nanotechnology.
Each video touches upon the particular aspect of nanotechnology which is also described in the text "How Small is Small?".
As you watch match the videos 1-6 with the appropriate paragraphs A-H in the text.
There are more paragraphs in the text than you need to use.
Video 1:Video 2:Video 3:Video 4:Video 5:Video 6:

How Small Is Small?

(A) Nanotechnology is science and engineering at the scale of atoms and molecules. It is the manipulation and use of materials and devices so tiny that nothing can be built any smaller.

(B) Nanomaterials are typically between 0.1 and 100 nanometers (nm) in size - with 1nm being equivalent to one billionth of a meter. If one nanometer was roughly the width of a pinhead, then one meter on this scale would stretch the entire distance from Washington, DC to Atlanta - around 1000 kilometers. But a pinhead is actually one million nanometers wide. Most atoms are 0.1 to 0.2 nm wide, strands of DNA around 2nm wide, red blood cells are around 7000 nm in diameter, while human hairs are typically 80,000 nm across.

(C) People have made use of some unusual properties of materials at the nanoscale for centuries. Tiny particles of gold for example, can appear red or green, a property that has been used to colour stained glass windows for over 1000 years. However, the idea of nanotechnology was born only in 1959 when Nobel Prize winning physicist Richard Feynman gave a lecture exploring the idea of building things at the atomic and molecular scale. He imagined the entire Encyclopedia Britannica written on the head of a pin.

(D) When K. Eric Drexler popularized the word 'nanotechnology' in the 1980's, he was talking about building machines on the scale of molecules, a few nanometers wide; motors, robot arms, and even whole computers, far smaller than a cell. Drexler spent many years describing and analyzing these incredible devices, and responding to accusations of science fiction. In fact, experimental nanotechnology appeared in 1981, when IBM scientists in Zurich, Switzerland, built the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM). It made it possible to see single atoms by scanning a tiny probe over the surface of a silicon crystal.

(E) The nanometer length scale is unique because it makes it possible to change the fundamental properties of materials without altering their chemical composition. Nanoparticles have very high surface areas and their behaviour and mobility can be changed. Nanotechnology allows scientists to specifically analyze, organize and control matter on many length scales simultaneously. This creates unlimited possibilities for products and applications. Advanced nanotechnology, or that which works with artificial intelligence, nanorobots and self - assembly is expected to increase significantly.

(F) Nanoparticles are currently used in the electronic, magnetic, optoelectronic, biomedical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, energy, catalytic and materials industries. In the medical field they are used to aid in drug delivery and medical imaging, and in future nanotechnology is predicted to contribute to new cancer therapies, new treatments for infections and brain diseases and new drugs with fewer side effects.

(G) Nanotechnology is also expected to play a major role in environmental protection. Nanoparticles may be used in contaminant neutralization, magnetic techniques, special filtering and cleaning methods, environmental decontamination and energy conservation and in the production of energy efficient devices.

(H) Nanotechnology involves manipulations of matter at extremely small levels and its applications appear to be almost limitless. Cancer cures, shirts that change colour, self-heating/cooling clothes, super processors the size of sugar cubes, alloys both lighter and stronger than steel are just a handful of the potential applications of this technology that may bring about more change in 25 years than the entire 20th century.